Jean-Luc Marion, the phenomenologist heir to Heidegger, claims having a true university is not possible today, for such a thing one would need, he says, a concept of “universal reason”, but that enlightenment dream is dead, Postmodernism has shown, as David Bentley Hart put’s it,
So much of what we imagine to be the testimony of reason or the clear and unequivocal evidence of our senses is really only an interpretive reflex, determined by mental habits impressed in us by an intellectual and cultural history. Even our notion of what might constitute a “rational” or “realistic” view of things is largely a product not of a dispassionate attention to facts, but of an ideological legacy.”
“All reasoning presumes premises or intuitions or ultimate convictions that cannot be proved by any foundations or facts more basic than themselves, and hence there are irreducible convictions present wherever one attempts to apply logic to experience. One always operates within boundaries established by one’s first principles, and asks only the questions that those principles permit.”
DC Schindler disagrees. “It is not,” insists Schindler, “the grandeur of reason but its impoverishment that leads to oppressive rationalism and the arbitrary irrationalism inseparable from it”
The antidote, he’s says, is “ecstatic” reason—reason that, like being itself, it always open to what is beyond it.
The main problem, as he see’s it, was the separation of being from intellect. Once upon a time the two were congruent, the cosmos was mind-like (and indeed quantum physics is showing a cosmos more like mind than machine) and so all being was mental, there was a continuum, the human mind itself simply the most transparent aspect of being
“While the conventional contemporary view of the world conceives of thought as opposed to, or at any rate outside of, the real, the classical worldview understands thought as a deepening of the real, and therefore as a bringing of experience to fruition.”
Or, as Hart puts it,
"In the pre-modern vision of things, the cosmos had been seen as an inherently purposive structure of diverse but integrally inseparable rational relations — for instance, the Aristotelian aitia, which are conventionally translated as “causes,” but which are nothing like the uniform material “causes” of the mechanistic philosophy. And so the natural order was seen as a reality already akin to intellect. Hence the mind, rather than an anomalous tenant of an alien universe, was instead the most concentrated and luminous expression of nature’s deepest essence. This is why it could pass with such wanton liberty through the “veil of Isis” and ever deeper into nature’s inner mysteries.
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